Evolution of Damped Quantum Oscillators in Density Matrix Space

Publication Issue: 
Volume 39, Issue 2, 2018
Page No: 
20032
Date Received: 
Monday, January 29, 2018
Authors' Name: 
Buang Ann Tay
Authors' Affiliation and Address: 
Foundation Studies, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract: 
We examine the general form of the generators of time evolution on density matrices of damped oscillators and clarify the conditions that must be fulfilled by them. The generators must be adjoint-symmetric to preserve the hermiticity of density matrices and trace-preserving to conserve probability. The conditions lead to a set of basis generators where generic ones are formed by taking linear sums of the basis over real coefficients. The requirement on the positivity of density matrices then limit the range of the coefficients. In ordinary symmetry on state vectors (pure states) in the Hilbert space, symmetry operators are unitary and factorized. The symmetry on density matrices is more general in the sense that it is not limited to unitary and factorized transformation. The time evolution operators of quantum systems are examples of general transformation that form semigroups, but the generic general transformation is not limited to semigroup.
Manuscript: 
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